Gardening

Sowing of vegetables


GeneralitŠ°


The most widespread planting techniques for most vegetables are basically two: direct sowing or transplanting nursery-grown seedlings.
The choice of the technique, especially for the hobbyist, falls more often on direct sowing, as it is much faster and also much cheaper. In reality the analyzes to be done would be more profound, in fact the choice of the planting technique should be dependent on the environmental factors, the characteristics of the plants themselves and the characteristics of the soil.
Let's look at the individual techniques in detail.

Sowing




For the common hobbyist this is the simplest sowing technique, as no special tools or machinery are needed, such as in the case of industrial crops, but only careful use of the hands, which allows the seeds to maintain a right-sized crop space and more or less constant and regular.
Direct sowing also brings with it some other advantages such as, for example, a deeper development of the root system that allows the plants to run into a lesser degree in situations of discomfort due to water stress.
As in all things, together with the "pros" there are also some "cons", in fact we know that the plants implanted through this technique require longer cultivation cycles, including preparatory interventions such as weeding, moreover this technique does not allow to plant. very precise from the point of view of the density of the plants, their uniformity on the ground and the germination times.
These small problems can partly be overcome by buying packaged seeds with a particular technique that has been in vogue for many years and known as confection: the seeds are covered with a thin film of resin that makes the surface uniform, allowing the greater part of them to standardize the germination periods.
There is even a type of confection called Split-pill, whose film has the particularity of dividing into two in contact with a certain degree of humidity.
In order to have even more uniform germination times, it is then possible to use calibrated or precision seeds, which are selected on the basis of their size (homogeneous) and have great advantages compared to emergency uniformity and tolerance to non-optimal temperatures. .

Germination




In direct sowing in the open field it is very important to look for the optimal conditions for germination and for the development of the chosen seed, the speed and the percentage of germination depend on a series of factors, some typical of the species or variety, others of an environmental type. Very important is the method of preserving the seeds before sowing itself, especially in the case of seeds not particularly long-lived, which must be kept at a humidity of about 6-8%, in moderate temperature conditions (14 ° / 15 ° C) and low relative humidity (30 - 40%), possibly in impermeable containers.
The temperature is an element of fundamental influence in the phases of germination together with the humidity conditions of the substrate, the latter are differently tolerated by the different species of seeds, in fact we have seeds that germinate well in conditions of high humidity and others that germinate well in the reverse condition, then there are some species such as, Pumpkin, Melon, Watermelon, Radish, which germinate well in both conditions.
Normally in the horticultural species there are no phenomena of seed dormancy, except in the case of very old or poorly preserved seeds.

Various seeds


The quality of the seed is perhaps the most important aspect of the whole cultivation process, to which it is good to pay great attention since, in addition to the characteristics seen up to this moment, germination, germination energy, purity and uniformity of calibration, do not we must underestimate the great importance of the aspects concerning the health of the seed and the genetic heritage of the variety to which it belongs.
Unfortunately the health of the seed is difficult to verify, if not through laboratory analysis.
Since the genetic characteristics of the chosen cultivar can only be controlled at the time of harvest, over the years the need to use seeds that are certified by control bodies that guarantee the compliance of the genetic resistance declared with those actually possessed by the seed has arisen.

Transplant


The production of crops through the technique of transplanting allows the use of very expensive seeds since their germination is total (with very low quantity of non-germinated seeds) thus allowing the use of quantities much lower than the classic seeds for direct seeding.
Moreover the transplant allows to anticipate the cultivation cycle obtaining early productions; this aspect is very advantageous in the case of industrial crops as it allows more different crops to be grown in the same plot of land in the same year. With the adoption of this technique it is no longer necessary to carry out preliminary operations of weeding and thinning (not important given the necessary preventive tillage of the soil).
Obviously among the most obvious advantages we have the possibility of arranging the plants in a very precise way (in spatial terms), attributing to them the specific density they need to develop in the best way.
Also this technique, like the previous one, includes among its features some negativities: for example rooting problems related to environmental conditions and irrigation possibilities.

Crop density


The optimal density of cultivation is not a constant parameter but on the contrary can be influenced by a large number of factors, including the competition capacity of each individual species, the climatic conditions and the water and nutrient availability.
Over the years we have come to establish, for each crop, the limits within which crop density can fluctuate and how it can be influenced by other important aspects such as irrigation and fertilization. The effects of crop density are studied in relation to the total production per plant and per square meter: the relationship established between crop density and production per unit of surface is inversely proportional, in fact as the density increases the unit production per plant decreases more. or less quickly depending on the competitiveness of the neighboring species.
There are some crops that are not affected by high crop density such as cutting salads or seasoning vegetables (basil, parsley, celery).
A final report to consider, although difficult for the hobbyist (there are still kits for soil analysis), is the one between crop density and water and mineral availability of the soil, these factors, which can significantly affect the plant productivity.

Advice on germination


After giving a brief description of the two main implantation techniques from a technical visitation point, we also want to talk about an aspect, very fascinating and perhaps in recent times forgotten, which influences, sometimes even decisively, the success of a harvest, preparation of preserves, bottling of wine etc ...: the influence of the moon on our planet.
Some consider this an argument to the limits of science fiction but in reality, since ancient times, the human being has been able to touch, and learn to manage, the conditionings on the nature that this satellite exercises.
The phenomenon has been the subject of numerous scientific studies in the past that have verified the effects, not surprisingly, even today, where technologies are not used that make it possible to overcome these constraints, many agricultural and horticultural activities are planned precisely according to the phases moon.
The moon revolves around the earth at an average distance of about 385,000 km along an elliptical orbit. Because of the type of orbit that it performs, the moon is not always at the same distance from the earth, so both the point where it comes to be at maximum distance, called Apogee (approx. 405000Km), and the maximum point are determined. proximity, called Perigeo (approx. 355000 Km).
During its journey the orbit of the moon intersects that of the earth in several points, both in the ascending and in the descending phase, and at these intersections the name of Nodes has been given.
We have quoted these figures as it is important to know that the attraction that the satellite exerts towards our planet varies according to the distance it is in relation to it, having said that it is obvious that the influences of the moon are maximum when it comes to be in the point identified as Perigee, while they are minimal when found at the Apogee.
Depending on the different reference points that are taken, it is possible to calculate the solar month in five different ways: synodic month, sidereal month, tropic month, anomalistic month and draconitic month; the simplest method from a visual point of view is that of the synodic month, which represents the interval of time elapsed between a new and the next moon and has a duration of 29 days, 12 hours and 44 minutes.
The lunar phases
For simplicity we can identify 4 main moon phases:
· New moon: the moon is not visible as the side that faces the earth is not illuminated by the sun.
· Half crescent moon: it starts about a week after the new moon phase, in this case the satellite shows the earth half of its face illuminated by the sun.
· Full moon: after about two weeks from the new moon we have the phase of full moon, where the moon reaches its maximum brightness and shows all its surface illuminated.
· Half waning moon: it starts about three weeks after the phase of the new moon, where what happened during the phase of half crescent moon is repeated, even if on the contrary.
We have already said that the influences of the moon on our planet have been widely tested, at this point we see, without going into too technical details, which are practical in their own right.
First of all, let's dispel a widespread belief: the moon does not shine with its own light, the splendor of which we see it shining is nothing but the light of the sun's rays absorbed and reflected towards the earth.
Although the light source is always the sun, past studies have shown that the influence of the two types of light, solar and lunar, on plants are very different.
Note the fact that even if it is reflected light, that of the moon is not less powerful than the solar one, on plants with high stems it can even get to have what are called "moon burns", traumas of the canals lymphatics due to excessive absorbed lunar light, which cause the death of the shoots.
The moon has a vital influence on plants and, far more importantly, complementary to that of the sun but absolutely different. It exerts its conditioning on plant development, seed germination (moon rays penetrate deeper into the soil than solar ones) and facilitates another set of functions that cannot occur during the day due to the high intensity of the sunlight.
In practice, plant metabolism depends on moonlight as much as it depends on the sun.
To find out which are the most suitable moments to carry out the various operations, from sowing to harvest, to conservation, in harmony with the phases of the moon, it is sufficient to consult lunar calendars that provide the passage of the moon in the various zodiacal regions, indicating for each of these more suitable crops to dedicate to and the most suitable type of processing.
Let's see some tips on how to cultivate in the vegetable garden: tomatoes should be harvested if possible during a crescent moon if they are intended for fresh consumption, while it is better a few days after a full moon to collect those to be preserved.
Sow the lettuce with the crescent moon to obtain a rapid development, but at the expense of a less compact heart, while the onion must be sown in the phase of waning moon as with the crescent moon the bulb turns out to acquire a worse taste.
The cutting of the lawn should be done with the waning moon as at this stage the cut grass dries faster, avoiding the onset of mold.
To perform operations in your garden or in your garden we recommend the use of the following products:
· Biotron S for the supply of organic matter to the soil
· Sinergon 2000 to promote germination and avoid transplant crises
· Granverde mineral for vegetable and garden areas to provide the nourishment necessary for the growth of vegetables.

Sowing of vegetables: the phases of the moon


For simplicity we can identify 4 main moon phases:
· New moon: the moon is not visible as the side that faces the earth is not illuminated by the sun.
· Half crescent moon: it starts about a week after the new moon phase, in this case the satellite shows the earth half of its face illuminated by the sun.
· Full moon: after about two weeks from the new moon we have the phase of full moon, where the moon reaches its maximum brightness and shows all its surface illuminated.
· Half waning moon: it starts about three weeks after the phase of the new moon, where what happened during the phase of half crescent moon is repeated, even if on the contrary.
We have already said that the influences of the moon on our planet have been widely tested, at this point we see, without going into too technical details, which are practical in their own right.
First of all, let's dispel a widespread belief: the moon does not shine with its own light, the splendor of which we see it shining is nothing but the light of the sun's rays absorbed and reflected towards the earth.
Although the light source is always the sun, past studies have shown that the influence of the two types of light, solar and lunar, on plants are very different.
Note the fact that even if it is reflected light, that of the moon is not less powerful than the solar one, on plants with high stems it can even get to have what are called "moon burns", traumas of the canals lymphatics due to excessive absorbed lunar light, which cause the death of the shoots.
The moon has a vital influence on plants and, far more importantly, complementary to that of the sun but absolutely different. It exerts its conditioning on plant development, seed germination (moon rays penetrate deeper into the soil than solar ones) and facilitates another set of functions that cannot occur during the day due to the high intensity of the sunlight.
In practice, plant metabolism depends on moonlight as much as it depends on the sun.
To find out which are the most suitable moments to carry out the various operations, from sowing to harvest, to conservation, in harmony with the phases of the moon, it is sufficient to consult lunar calendars that provide the passage of the moon in the various zodiacal regions, indicating for each of these more suitable crops to dedicate to and the most suitable type of processing.
Let's see some tips on how to cultivate in the vegetable garden: tomatoes should be harvested if possible during a crescent moon if they are intended for fresh consumption, while it is better a few days after a full moon to collect those to be preserved.
Sow the lettuce with the crescent moon to obtain a rapid development, but at the expense of a less compact heart, while the onion must be sown in the phase of waning moon as with the crescent moon the bulb turns out to acquire a worse taste.
The cutting of the lawn should be done with the waning moon as at this stage the cut grass dries faster, avoiding the onset of mold.
To perform operations in your garden or in your garden we recommend the use of the following products:
· Biotron S for the supply of organic matter to the soil
· Sinergon 2000 to promote germination and avoid transplant crises
· Granverde mineral for vegetable and garden areas to provide the nourishment necessary for the growth of vegetables.
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