The prunings are practiced to favor the development of new shoots, to clean the plants of damaged or damaged branches, or to contain the development of excessively "exuberant" plants. For each plant and shrub, however, it is necessary to follow correct times and ways, to avoid the most common pruning errors that we can admire in every garden.
In general, trees, such as conifers, maples, magnolias, etc., do not need vigorous pruning; it may happen that the wind or the frost spoils some secondary branching, which will be removed, to prevent insects or other parasites from finding the door open through the dead wood of a broken branch to penetrate even into healthy tissues; in general they do not need other large prunings, unless the foliage is to be contained for some reason: we remember because after pruning the trees tend to develop new strong and vigorous shoots, which will tend to develop very quickly; so if we intend to plant a tree in our garden we try to choose it with limited growth, so as not to then have to fight with too large foliage or too large branches.
As for fruit trees, such as pomaceous and drupaceous trees, pruning will be vigorous on young specimens, to set their hair; later the prunings will be less and less intense, also because these plants tend to produce fruit on the old branches and not on the new shoots of the year.
When we prune a tree or a flowering shrub it is very important to know if the plant in front of us blooms on new branches or old branches; plants such as forsythia, azaleas and cercis, carry the flower buds on the branches of the previous year; at the end of winter, before the foliage is produced, the flower buds are already present on the branches; for this reason a pruning operation at the end of winter on these plants will deprive us of most of the flowers: for this reason trees and flowering shrubs that carry floral buds on old branches should be pruned only after flowering, in order to enjoy the flowers themselves.
Instead trees and flowering shrubs that bring flowers to new branches, such as roses, buddleie, shrubby fuchsias, produce flowers only on new branches, so vigorous pruning at the end of winter promotes a rich spring bloom.
Moreover, pruning favors the development of shoots in the lower part of the plant; this fact can be useful when a shrub, even in the apartment, is emptied of branches in the lower part: the shortening of the upper branches favors the development of new branches in the lower part, which will fill the shrub, giving it a shape round and full.
Pruning: Tools for pruning
Evergreen hedges and shrubs tend to have a vigorous development, especially if they are climbing plants; for this reason it is advisable to practice numerous prunings of slight entity, distributed throughout the year. In this way we can control the growth of plants, and favor the development of dense and vigorous shrubs. Recall that to obtain precise cuts and healthy plants it is essential to use shears and other cutting tools that practice clear and precise incisions; therefore periodically we sharpen the shears, so that they do not go to crush the wood, but they cut it in a clean way, with smooth and clean cuts.
After cutting each shrub we disinfect the blades, so as to avoid transporting any pathogens from one plant to another.