The best crops to pre-plant onions will be those that grow early and free up space for planting (radishes, radishes, green crops, and the like). And in the same place, onions can be grown only after 4-5 years.
- Scattering onion seeds
- Seed sowing methods
- Planting a seedling
Scattering onion seeds
Before the sowing procedure, the seeds should be carefully prepared. This is done so that they sprout better and faster, since it is known that the germination capacity of onions is quite small. Under favorable conditions, on average, it will be about 50% of all planted seeds. Of course, if we talk about elite seeds, then this figure rises to 80%.
In order to scatter the seeds to bring the expected results, pay attention to the following recommendations:
- Seeds should only be from last year. Even two-year crops may not come up. It is important to point out that the essential oils contained in the seeds interfere with moisture penetration.
- During cultivation, it is important to get friendly and early shoots from the seeds.
- Sowing onions should be as early as possible, as soon as the snow melts in spring and weather conditions will favor tillage.
- Sowing late can cause a significant reduction in seedlings and the loss of their ability to actively grow, which will directly affect the overall yield.
It is allowed to sow onion seeds before winter. An important nuance: sowing is carried out immediately before the onset of stable frosts. In this case, seed germination and bulb formation will accelerate by about 12-16 days. Another positive aspect of winter crops is better storage. However, it is best to produce them on sandy loam soils. It is also undesirable to soak the seeds before sowing.
Seed sowing methods
There are several ways to sow seeds:
- wide-row method. It is used in large areas. Distance between rows - 60 cm, between adjacent rows - 45 cm;
- sowing on small plots of land. The row spacing is 30 cm. When sowing, manual seeders are often used.
The rate of winter sowing is 20-25% higher and for more even sowing the seeds are mixed with sawdust or sand. The seeding depth is 2 - 2.5 cm. Of course, the indicated rate may be different. So, light sandy soils contribute to deeper planting, at a time when the heavy clay surface does not allow to deepen by more than 1.5 cm. The first shoots of onions appear somewhere on the 20th day. Together with them, weeds begin to grow, which must be removed in time so that rhizomes do not form. Weeds are easily removed between rows with a flat cutter or rake.
Important note: constantly moist soil contributes to the emergence of seedlings. Crust formation is not allowed as it can reduce seed ingrowth by 50 - 70%. To prevent this phenomenon, use plastic wrap. It is laid out on the garden bed and removed after the first shoots appear.
Planting a seedling
Onions are also sown using a seedling. Seedlings are small bulbs with a diameter of up to 4 cm that are specially grown for further sowing. It is mainly used to grow peninsular and sharp onion varieties and some hybrids. By growing onions in this way, you can get marketable products in the first year.
Preparing the soil for sowing a seedling is similar to planting seeds, only before planting the seedling itself, you need to loosen the soil a little (to a depth of 10 cm).
During planting of a seedling, the following factors play a significant role:
- Seedling size. For the bulb to form, it must be medium.
- Sowing should not be too early or too late. In the first case, deformation of the culture and shooting may occur, and in the second, a lot of moisture will be lost, which will affect the rooting of the onion.
- Favorable weather conditions. Onions are a thermophilic culture, and therefore they should be planted at the end of long frosts.
Planting a plant comes from the smallest and ends with a larger one. It is usually sown in a wide-row way: the distance between the rows is 30 cm, and between the bulbs 4 - 5 cm. After planting, you need to compact the soil. The first shoots will appear on the 30-40th day.