Not so long ago, the sowing caterpillar was quite common only in the wild. All these names also apply to the arugula salad culture, which is popular today.
In recent decades, the plant has begun to be grown on an industrial scale in open and closed ground. The caterpillar is no longer considered a weed. Arugula is a trend among new garden crops. The cultivation of arugula has become popular in personal subsidiary plots as well. Let's try to understand the reasons for such a love for this culture.
- Arugula, general information
- What conditions are needed for growing arugula outdoors
- Arugula varieties, sowing and cultivation
Arugula, general information
Eruka sowing or arugula belongs to the Indau genus from the Cabbage family. Arugula is mainly an annual herb up to 60 - 70 cm high. There are several types of arugula. They differ in the shape of the leaves and the color of the flowers. There are plants with both white and yellow flowers. It is believed that the real wild-growing arugula from Italy and the Mediterranean countries has small, delicate and somewhat embossed leaves.
And arugula, which is usually grown in industrial greenhouses, has more rounded leaves. Inflorescences are collected in long loose clusters. After the end of flowering, fruits are formed - pods. The length of the pods is up to 4 cm. The seeds in the pods are arranged in two rows. The shape of the seeds is most often oval, the color is brown, light brown, the size is up to 3 mm.
Flowers and leaves are used as food for arugula. The seeds are used to prepare mustard oil. Due to the high content of erucic acid, from 20 to 40%, this oil is rarely used in food in its pure form. It is customary to add flowers and leaves of a plant to salads fresh. It is important to note that the younger, smaller and softer the arugula leaves, the tastier it tastes. Arugula leaves contain vitamins:
- AT 9
- IN 3
The carotenoids zeaxanthin and lutein, which are found in arugula, are important for vision, as they affect the macular area in the retina of the eye. Their use is a good prevention against cataracts and macular degeneration. The following substances are also present in the leaves and flowers:
It is important to note that arugula has a lacticidal agent in lactating women, in addition, it has bactericidal and disinfecting properties, and stimulates digestion. Scientists note the beneficial effect of the plant on the course of type 2 diabetes, it is recommended to eat it in case of metabolic disorders, problems with excess weight.
Research is currently underway on the effect of arugula on oncological processes. All this made this culture very popular and began to grow it on private farmsteads, although until the middle of the last century, wild-growing forms were mainly collected.
What conditions are needed for growing arugula outdoors
Growing arugula on your own is easy. The culture is not particularly demanding. Small leaves, which age from 20 to 50 days, are distinguished by the greatest benefits and the best taste. Therefore, you can sow arugula several times per season. This should be done from April to August. And in winter, you can sow and grow arugula on the windowsill.
When choosing a land for this culture, you need to remember that highly acidic soils will not work for it. This, in general, unpretentious culture will not grow on them. She feels good on neutral soils or in the beds, where the earth is with a weak acidic or alkaline reaction. If the ground is acidic, then you need to add chalk or lime for planting arugula. Arugula belongs to light-loving plants, but it also tolerates light shade well.
In poorly lit places, you should not sow arugula, the leaves will lose not only color, but also taste. The plant is able to withstand a drop in temperature to -7 degrees, but still, with prolonged exposure to low temperatures, arugula grows very poorly, the leaves hardly develop.
The optimum temperature for it is not lower than + 16. Arugula is quite demanding for watering. When the soil dries out, the leaves lose their delicate texture and become rough. In hot summer conditions, you need to organize additional watering. You can feed the arugula plantings once or twice with a solution of a rotted mullein at the rate of one spoon per 10 liters of water. Nitrogen fertilization is not recommended. Like all cabbage, arugula accumulates nitrates.
The first sowing in open ground can be done in the third decade of April. The last one - in the first ten days of August. Arugula can be grown through seedlings for an earlier harvest. Seedlings are sown in late March - early April. Subject to the basic conditions, you can sow arugula in open ground and get a harvest of useful greens.
Arugula varieties, sowing and cultivation
Before sowing, dig a bed to the depth of a shovel and walk it well with a rake, breaking large and small lumps. best of all, if the bed is where it grew before:
Make shallow, 10 - 15 mm grooves in the prepared soil. The distance between the rows is up to 15 - 30 cm. It is good to shed the furrows with water. Sow seeds, preferably at a distance of 3 cm to 10 cm from each other. Cover the grooves with soil. It is not necessary to close the seeds deeper than 0.5 cm. It is better to cover early spring crops with a covering material such as lutrasil.
Seedlings will appear in a week. If the threat of frost has not yet passed, then remove the film from the garden only in the daytime, when the temperature is higher than + 1 degree. Further care will include loosening, weeding and watering. When the arugula leaf reaches ten cm in length, you can start cutting.
Varieties for growing on a private farm
- Poker. The variety is distinguished by its early ripeness. Leaves for cutting are suitable for 20 - 25 days. Up to 18 cm high. With a pleasant, slightly mustard taste. Recommended not only for growing in the garden, but also as a pot culture. Productivity up to 1.3 kg per square meter.
- Rococo. The variety is early, has wide leaves, and is fruitful. Harvesting is possible on day 25. You can remove up to 1.5 kg from one square. meters.
- Taganskaya. An early and cold-resistant variety with narrow and heavily cut leaves. Technical maturity occurs on day 25. Productivity up to 1, 2 kg per sq. meters.
- Solitaire.Variety can be grown as a biennial. In the spring, he will give the earliest harvest of vitamin greens. Productivity up to 1.6 kg per sq. meters.
When harvesting arugula leaves, it is important to remember that fresh they can be stored in the refrigerator for no longer than a week.
Growing arugula on video: