Evening primrose, history of appearance in Europe, description, planting evening primrose

Enotera is an unusual plant that attracts the attention of flower growers with several of its wonderful properties. We will try to understand the features of this garden plant.


  • Enotera history of emergence in Europe
  • Description of perennial evening primrose
  • Where and how to plant perennial evening primrose

Enotera history of emergence in Europe

When the Europeans discovered and began to develop the American continent, many Pioneers brought various plants to their homeland. So, in European countries, potatoes, tomatoes and tobacco appeared and eventually took root. In the same way, flowers from the Enothera genus appeared. It is noteworthy that the evening primrose brought from North America in the second half of the 17th century very quickly settled in Europe and instantly went wild.

This is due to the fact that the seeds ripening in early autumn are very attractive to many insects, including ants, which carry them long distances from the mother bush. It should be said that evening primrose served botanical science as well. Once, at the end of the 19th century, while walking in the vicinity of Amsterdam, the Dutch botanist Hugo De Vries drew attention to the wild thickets of primrose.

For ten years, he examined more than fifty thousand specimens of evening primrose. It turned out that about 1.5% of all specimens had features that were not typical of the original forms. The variability was observed, which occurred in a very short time. The term mutation was introduced by H. De Vries precisely after the study of evening primrose and the publication in 1901 - 1903 of a two-volume scientific work. Thus, the evening primrose plant served botany and genetics.

Description of perennial evening primrose

The genus Enotera is quite numerous, it includes about a hundred species of plants from the Cyprian family. For the most part, these are annual, biennial or perennial herbaceous, shrub or semi-shrub forms. The plant has a taproot, there are species in which it grows in the rhizome. Evening primrose biennial has a root that is eaten, such evening primrose is bred as a vegetable crop and is called rapontica.

Leaves are simple with a solid edge or pinnately dissected. Flowers with four petals. Placed one at a time or collected in inflorescences. Almost all species open their flowers in the evening and the petals instantly unfold right before the eyes of the observer. With such a rapid opening of the buds, a light cotton is heard. In just a few seconds, the entire bush is covered with flowers.

The color of the flowers is predominantly bright yellow, lemon, although there are species and bred varieties with white or pink flowers. The fruit is a polysperm. Oil for the cosmetic industry is obtained from the seeds of the biennial primrose. Enotera perennial has been cultivated as a garden plant since the second half of the 18th century.

Enotera by video:

It is a perennial herb. Perennial evening primrose is most often a low-growing, ground cover plant. In height, its varieties do not exceed 25 - 35 cm. Many varieties are very decorative, with open buds, leaves and stems are almost invisible. Unlike perennial low-growing evening primrose, there are species of primrose, which can be up to 2.0 m in height.

The flowers of the perennial evening primrose are yellow, 1.5 - 2.0 cm in diameter. Flowering begins in the second decade of July, the flowering period is from three to six weeks. Unlike other types of evening primrose, perennial opens its flowers during the day, therefore, lovers of contemplating extraordinary flowers in the daylight, we can recommend this particular type of evening primrose. The plant is prone to self-seeding and spreading throughout the site and beyond. Enotera is a perennial plant that is quite unpretentious and does not require special skills in cultivation.

Where and how to plant perennial evening primrose

Considering that the plant has very good resistance to low temperatures, little demand for moisture and soil composition, it is quite easy to find a place for it in the garden. A place well-lit by the sun, or a very small and short-term shading during the day, is suitable. It is desirable that the site is oriented to the south.

The soil is loose and light enough. It is best if it is loamy or sandy loam soil, with a neutral or close to neutral environment, with moderate moisture. It is advisable to prepare the soil for planting in advance:

  • remove weeds and plant residues from the site
  • dig up the ground on a shovel bayonet
  • simultaneously with digging, add humus, three kg per sq. meter
  • moisten the soil a day before planting

When planting perennial evening primrose on heavy, moist soils, care must be taken to drain and drain water with the simultaneous introduction of sand in order to prevent long-term standing of water. When the site is ready, you can start planting perennial evening primrose. Evening primrose is propagated in two ways:

  • seeds
  • dividing by a bush

The seeds are planted directly into the ground. Do it in the fall or spring. When sowing, the seeds are not planted deeper than 1 - 3 mm. In the first year, only a rosette of leaves will appear. For the winter period, it must be completely cut off. No additional cover is needed. A plant planted with seeds will bloom only in the second summer.

To get flowering in the first year, it is necessary to sow evening primrose seeds for seedlings in February, and in May to plant young seedlings in the ground.

Care in the first year consists in removing weeds, watering and loosening the soil. In spring or autumn, the bushes can be divided and planted in the desired place. It is important to remember that evening primrose is perennial, like its other species, the plant is prone to self-seeding and root growth.

Left unattended, it very aggressively occupies both the entire adjacent space and settles over a long distance. Therefore, when planting, it is advisable to surround the roots with any underground obstacle, and to pick off the flowers immediately after they have faded, preventing the seeds from ripening.

Watch the video: Planting Primrose (January 2022).