Cyclamen is a flowering houseplant from the Primrose family. The flowering period of the Persian falls in the winter, and the European in the spring and summer.
- Description of the plant
- Growing conditions
- Correct care
- Reproduction of cyclamen
- Plant pests
Description of the plant
Cyclamen is a popular indoor culture with a tuberous root. It has heart-shaped root leaves with a silvery pattern, which are located on long petioles. Flowers in their shape resemble butterflies, their petals are bent back and pointed. Depending on the variety, the edges of the petals can be fringed or even. The color of flowers can be very diverse, from white to deep burgundy.
With proper care, the flowering period of cyclamen lasts about 3 months. The tuber of this plant has a flattened shape, its diameter is about 15 cm. It has only one growth point, if it is damaged, the plant will certainly die.
Cyclamen is often considered a very demanding and capricious plant, but this is not at all the case. This culture is not quite whimsical and does not require any special care or growing conditions.
It is best to place the cyclamen pot in a place with bright, but diffused lighting. For this, the windows of the east or west exposure are best suited. In the summer, the cyclamen pot can be placed on the north window, where it will be reliably protected from direct sunlight.
In winter, the temperature is considered optimal for cyclamen in the range of + 12-14 ° C. The plant reacts negatively to higher rates. Advice! To reduce the negative effect of high temperature on cyclamen, it must be sprayed daily with cool water. In this case, you need to ensure that it does not fall on the growth point and flowers.
A loose substrate with a slightly acidic reaction is suitable for growing cyclamen. It can be composed of 3 parts of leaf humus, 1 part of peat, 1 part of sand. You can also use a ready-made flower primer.
During the active growing season, which lasts from September to March in cyclamen, the plant must be watered abundantly. In this case, it is best to use bottom watering, that is, the pot with the plant is placed on a tray with water. There it is left until the top layer of the soil gets wet, after which the excess moisture is drained from the pallet.
Cyclamen care is not difficult at all. The main thing is to adhere to the following simple rules:
- Although this culture requires cool conditions, it reacts negatively to drafts. Therefore, they should not be allowed in the room where the cyclamen is located.
- During the period of active growth, the plant must be fed. To do this, you can use any complex fertilizer for indoor plants. It should be diluted according to the attached instructions.
- Cyclamen requires high air humidity, so the air around it should be periodically sprayed.
Also, faded flowers must be constantly removed from the plant. If this is not done, then the bases of the peduncles begin to rot, which will most likely lead to the death of the entire plant. Moreover, the peduncles should not be cut or pulled out, but carefully twisted.
After the end of flowering, the cyclamen begins a dormant period and by the beginning of summer there are no leaves left on the plant. Yellowing of the leaves is a sign of the onset of this period. After that, watering begins to be reduced, gradually bringing it to a minimum.
Attention! The soil in the pot should not be allowed to dry out completely, it needs to be watered occasionally. Since the roots of the plant do not die off, but remain alive. If these conditions are met, by the beginning of August, the cyclamen wakes up and begins to grow new leaves. After that, the tuber must be transplanted into fresh soil.
Reproduction of cyclamen
Cyclamen can be propagated both vegetatively, that is, by dividing the tuber, or by seeds. Each of these methods has its own advantages and disadvantages.
All the secrets of caring for cyclamen on video:
This propagation method can only be used on adult and large tubers. The procedure in this case is as follows:
- Rinse the tuber from the soil residues.
- Using a sharp knife, cut into pieces, each of which should have a growth point.
- Sprinkle the slices with crushed charcoal powder.
- Dry the delenki for several days.
- Plant in the ground, deepening no more than two-thirds.
When multiplying by dividing the tuber, flowering plants can be obtained already in the same year.
Cyclamen can also be propagated through sowing seeds. For this, in February, seed containers are prepared, which are filled with loose and moisture-absorbing soil. To increase the percentage of germination of seeds before sowing, they can be treated with growth stimulants. For example, the following drugs give good results:
The seeding depth should be no more than 1 cm. The seeds can be laid out either in rows or in any order, while the distance between them should be at least 2 cm. Then they are covered with a very thin layer of soil or lightly sprinkled with sand.
After the end of sowing, the containers are covered with a film, preferably dark, and placed in a warm place. The optimum temperature for germination should be around + 20 ° C. If all these conditions are met, the first shoots can be seen in 50-60 days.
But these terms are conditional, so there are varieties whose seeds can germinate up to 5 months. At first, the seedlings do not yet have leaves, they look like small peas with one root.
At this time, it is very important to prevent the soil from drying out. Immediately after the appearance of the first seedlings, the seed containers are moved to a well-lit place. After a while, the first pair of leaves will appear on young plants, after which it will be possible to start picking them. With proper care, seed-grown plants will bloom in 7-11 months.
Most often, the following types of pests can be found on cyclamen:
Aphid. Small insects that feed on plant juices. In most cases, aphid colonies prefer to settle on young buds and cyclamen shoots. The first sign of the appearance of this pest is twisted leaves. Systemic insecticides are used to kill aphids.
Thrips. They appear most often at high air temperatures and low humidity. Just like aphids, they feed on plant sap. They destroy this pest with insecticides. Cyclamen mite. A very small, almost microscopic pest that settles on the back of the leaf blades.
In the affected plant, the leaves begin to curl up, and the buds die, and without having time to bloom. They destroy the cyclamen tick with insecticidal preparations. With the creation of suitable growing conditions and proper care, cyclamen is able to actively bloom and develop for 10 or more years.