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Buckwheat cultivation technology, especially sowing, care and harvesting


Buckwheat is the most important cereal crop grown in the European part of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine. The main product obtained from buckwheat is buckwheat.

But buckwheat straw is not a very valuable and nutritious product for agricultural animals, it is mixed with other crops to increase the nutritional value. The yield is not high, but the plant perfectly suppresses the growth of weeds, grows well and serves as an excellent option for sowing in front of other crops.

Content:

  1. Brief description of the plant
  2. Growing features
  3. Fertilizer application
  4. Soil cultivation for growing crops
  5. Sowing
  6. Care features
  7. Pollination
  8. Harvest

Short description

Buckwheat is an annual herbaceous plant with a taproot and a branching ribbed stem. The leaves are wide, in the shape of an arrow or a heart. The inflorescences are a complex raceme with bisexual fragrant pink-white flowers.

Fruits are nuts with three dark edges. The natural place of growth is the Eastern and Southern parts of Asia, it showed good growth in the Eastern, Central climatic zones of our country. It is a thermophilic herb, but does not tolerate extreme heat and drought.

Growing features

The technology of growing buckwheat for grain is not simple, but if you follow it, you can get excellent grain and straw.

Moisture

During flowering and fruit formation, it is important for the plant to constantly moisturize the soil, the seeds absorb a large amount of moisture during their growth. Each stage of the crop life cycle requires its own amount of moisture: germination and the period of flower emergence is approximately 12%, seed formation is 80-92%.

Warmly

Culture loves warmth and responds to favorable temperatures. The emergence of sprouts occurs at a temperature of about 8 degrees, and the laying of the future harvest is maximum during hot weather and high humidity of 15-23 degrees.

Shine

Daylight hours have a significant effect on yield, especially lighting during seed ripening is important. The growing season is only 75-85 days, depending on the variety.

The soil

It is advisable to place on a loose, well-ventilated, nutritious soil. Optimal soils for cultivation: chernozems, cultivated peatlands, light loams, soils with low acidity. Does not like and grows poorly on waterlogged soils, with a large amount of organic fertilizers.

Fertilizer application

The root system consumes little nutrients from the soil, so there is no point in excessive fertilization. Fertilizers containing potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen are applied for sowing, during the laying of the first buds and then during the flowering of the crop. In autumn, only soddy - podzolic, sandy soils are fertilized, and chernozems do not require additional feeding.

Soil cultivation for growing crops

Cereals and legumes, potatoes, sugar beets, winter crops growing in pure fallow, flax, millet are considered ideal predecessors. Legumes create the most nutritious soil for the plant, accumulate nitrogen in the soil, inhibit the growth of weeds.

When determining a place for crops, it is worth paying attention to the proximity of tree planting and the location of reservoirs. Insects - pollinators live in tree plantings, and forest plantations also protect fields from the first strong frosts and winds.

The main areas of pre-sowing soil preparation are:

  • Retention of moisture in the soil.
  • Removing weeds.
  • Leveling the soil.
  • Complete loosening.

The first treatment depends on the crops that were the predecessors. If these were legumes or cereals contaminated with weeds, then peeling and plowing of the plow should be carried out. Thanks to this treatment, moisture loss is reduced, the number of weeds is reduced and the soil is worked better.

Peeling is carried out immediately after harvesting the previous crops, which increases its efficiency. The depth of cultivation depends on the amount of weeds. On heavily contaminated soils, stubble cultivation is carried out twice with deeper cultivators and cultivators. Heavy harrows are often suspended from the cultivators.

After stubble cultivation, the soil is plowed to a depth of 10-12 cm, and after about 15 days, plowing on the topsoil is done to destroy the weeds. After legumes, as a rule, they are limited only to disking.

After potatoes and beets, peeling is not used, and when sowing buckwheat after perennial grasses, pre-sowing preparation is concluded only in plowing. When physical ripeness comes, cultivation and harrowing are carried out.

Before sowing, at least 2-3 cultivation treatments must be carried out, the first up to 12 cm, the second after about 10 days by 10 cm, the third after a week by 8 cm. Cultivation immediately before the sowing itself is done to the sowing depth of the seeds.

Experts believe that the maximum yield is obtained from heavy, completed seeds. Before sowing, they must be re-sorted by weight and size on pneumatic sorting machines or sorting with water. And after carrying out these procedures, they are dried to a state of flowability.

Such treated seeds of the 1st class according to the sowing standard are used for sowing work.

The sowing time is chosen according to agrotechnical recommendations, following the following conditions:

Frosts are unacceptable at the beginning of growth and at the end of the growing season.
The period of bud formation and grain formation requires high temperatures, approximately + 24-28 degrees.

The period of fruiting and mass flowering should be the most moisture-consuming period.

Sowing features

Buckwheat is sown in wide rows of 40-50 cm with a seeding rate of 1.3 million seeds per hectare. If the rows are made more often, then the plants will shade each other, growth and development deteriorate, metabolic processes slow down. The planting depth depends on the type of soil. On clay, heavy - about 5 cm, on cultivated, well-groomed areas - 6 cm.When the soil is dry, the seeds are buried even lower - up to 8 cm.

Crop care

The initial care before the appearance of the first shoots consists of harrowing and processing the row spacings. Thus, moisture is retained in the soil, weeds are destroyed, and the supply of oxygen to the seeds improves. With rare row spacings, the harrowing of crops is not carried out, because the harrows remove not only weeds, but also the sprouted buckwheat itself.

On heavily weed-infested lands, special chemical preparations are used, the so-called "chemical weeding" a few days before seed germination. If young seedlings begin to be exposed to diseases and numerous pests (fleas, scoops, meadow moths), insecticides are used.

Rolling the soil is carried out with ring-toothed and spur rollers. Hilling of plants also has a good effect, it promotes the appearance of additional roots and directly affects the yield, increasing it.

Flowering and pollination

Blooming buckwheat fields are a wonderful sight. The flowers bloom in turn, forming lush beautiful pink brushes, each of the flowers blooms for just a day, and the brush continues to bloom for one and a half to two months.

To obtain a good harvest, high-quality pollination of plants is necessary. For this purpose, experienced plant breeders start several families of bees per 1 hectare of sown area. Before the buckwheat begins to bloom, these families are taken out to the fields and placed at a distance of 350-500 m from each other to ensure correct and complete pollination.

This technique increases the yield by 50-60%, it is simply impossible to provide such indicators with other methods except bees.

Organization of grain harvesting

Just as the flowers bloom in turn, the grain ripens unevenly. As a rule, it is almost impossible to wait for the full ripeness of all the grain, therefore, they overstep the harvest when the lowest brushes are filled with grain, become heavy and about 70% of the grain turns brown, that is, reaches technical ripeness.

The main type of cleaning is separate.

So the plants are best dried to the desired moisture content and ripen in rolls, threshed well and grain losses are significantly reduced. Separate harvesting of buckwheat is more expedient than other methods, since it is the most effective and preserves the technological and sowing qualities of the plant.

For harvesting, they appear early in the morning or in the evening, when the air humidity is maximum. Buckwheat is mowed with special combines, which carry out not only mowing, but also the initial processing of grain, and finish harvesting no later than 5 days in advance. The best cut height is considered to be 16-20 cm.

If buckwheat was sown in rows, then it is recommended to mow it along the rows, if the crops were done on a wide-row principle, then mow at an angle of 45 degrees. Thus, it is possible to achieve a reduction in losses during harvesting.

Since fruits of different degrees of ripeness are simultaneously present on the plant, it will need to be processed in a grain cleaning plant in the future.

Primary cleaning takes place on air sieve machines with sieve cylinders, in secondary cleaning flat sieves are used. Heavily contaminated grain must be cleaned even more thoroughly on pneumatic sorting tables.

For storage, grain mass up to 15% moisture is suitable.

Seed material is stored in dry rooms, often in cloth bags, stacking each batch separately on a pallet or deck. The height of such a stack should be no more than 9-10 meters, width - no more than 3 meters. If the grain is stored in bulk, the layer is formed up to 2.5 meters.

Buckwheat is a rather capricious culture, and when it is grown, there are no main and secondary works, each agricultural technique is important and affects the future harvest.

Let's watch an interesting video about growing buckwheat:


Watch the video: Making buckwheat and wheat flour holiday presents (January 2022).