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What are vegetables, groups and names, what are the benefits for humans


Vegetables are a valuable source of nutrients that the body needs. Their diversity is surprising.

Content

  1. The difference between vegetables and fruits
  2. What are vegetables, groups and names
  3. The benefits of plant-based foods
  4. A bit of history
  5. We get acquainted with exotic vegetables, their names and photos
  6. How new types of vegetables appear

The difference between vegetables and fruits

For classification, it is necessary to understand how fruits differ from vegetables. All vegetables are grown in beds, used in the preparation of main dishes, and fruits are used as a dessert.

They grow on trees and shrubs and are called fruits. This is the main difference, but, as always, there are exceptions to any rule. For example, a bean pod grows from a flower ovary - a sign of a fruit. By scientific definition, these include cucumbers and peppers.

Since olden times, vegetables are considered to be juicy parts of plants suitable for food. In order to avoid confusion, you need to understand that there is a scientific and culinary classification. Do not be surprised when there are discrepancies with conventional ideas. If so, consider it from a botanical, not a culinary point of view.

Vegetable is a fairly broad concept. The most commonly used culinary meaning is the edible parts of plants that can be used to prepare a variety of dishes or eaten raw.

For this reason, the words vegetables and plants are not synonymous. Plants are a generalized concept, and vegetables are only part of plants that can be eaten.

What are vegetables, groups and names

Vegetables are parts of plants that are suitable for cooking. These include a large group with the exception of cereals, fruits, nuts, mushrooms, berries.

They are divided into:

  • leafy - these include cabbage of all varieties, Swiss chard, herbs, sorrel, tarragon, spinach;
  • fruit - saraha, peppers, blue, tomatoes;
  • floral - artichokes;
  • legumes - beans, peas, beans;
  • pumpkin - squash, zucchini, cucumbers, pumpkin, chayote, lageniriya, watermelon cucumber;
  • root vegetables - beets, turnips, carrots, radishes, radishes;
  • tuber crops - Jerusalem artichoke, potatoes;
  • bulbous and stem - garlic, all types of onions, rhubarb, asparagus;
  • algae - nori.

The benefits of plant foods

Sometimes the division is made according to the effect on the body.

There are such groups:

  • for the cardiovascular system - beans, beans, garlic, pumpkin, broccoli will benefit;
  • for the liver - all kinds of cabbage, tomatoes, cucumbers, carrots, garlic are useful;
  • to stimulate the biliary function - artichoke, beans, soybeans, beans;
  • to restore the liver - watermelon, melon, pumpkin;
  • for weight loss - spinach, asparagus, lettuce, cucumbers, carrots, broccoli;
  • to stimulate brain activity - Brussels sprouts, beets, spinach, which contain large amounts of antioxidants. Their use is recommended for people experiencing mental stress;
  • when carrying a pregnancy, it is necessary to add pumpkin, carrots, turnips, beets to the menu;
  • to increase immunity will help the use of peppers, cucumbers, tomatoes, salads, cabbage;
  • Beans, broccoli, pumpkin, beets, corn, containing a large amount of vitamins, amino acids, minerals, will help to normalize the digestive processes, which helps to remove harmful compounds from the intestines.

In addition, red pepper is a wonderful remedy for the prevention of oncological diseases, it helps to improve vision and lower blood pressure. Yellow pepper helps to slow down the aging process, normalize cholesterol, and improve memory.

Knowing about the benefits of plant-based foods will help you in formulating a diet for proper nutrition.

A bit of history, list and origin of traditionally grown vegetables and fruits

People began to cultivate useful plants for a long time. The history of agriculture dates back to the Stone Age. The first people were engaged in gathering, collecting seeds, leaves, fruits that were edible. Then agriculture appeared at a primitive level: the collected seeds were scattered, then the harvest was carried out.

Ancient people can be considered the first breeders: they chose plants whose fruits were distinguished by their taste and high yield in order to collect their seeds. In other words, all vegetable crops have their own centuries-old history.

Cabbage

The Mediterranean is considered her homeland. At first, they were engaged in the cultivation of leafy cabbage species, and then other varieties appeared. Theophrastus, a famous botanist in antiquity, described the cultivation of leafy cabbage back in the 3rd century. BC.

Pliny in the 1st c. AD testified to the existence of 8 varieties of cabbage, which included leafy cabbage, cabbage and broccoli.

It is generally accepted that cabbage appeared in Russia in the 7th century. BC, they were engaged in its cultivation on the territory of the Transcaucasus. Over time, it spread to the lands of Muscovy.

The most common, beloved by many varieties are varieties of white cabbage.

Bow

The lands of Central Asia and Afghanistan are the birthplace of this plant. Onions were cultivated in India, Egypt, and Ancient Greece. Hippocrates himself treated his patients with them.

The legionnaires of Ancient Rome were obliged to eat this vegetable - many believed that people from it became strong, brave and energetic.

French, Spanish, Portuguese commoners in the Middle Ages ate onions every day. He came to the territory of Russia in the 12-13 centuries.

Garlic

It was found by archaeologists during excavations of the Egyptian pyramids. He was also known in Ancient Greece and Rome. Throughout the Middle Ages, garlic was used as amulets that could save people from adversity.

Potatoes

The homeland of this tuber is considered to be Central and South America. Now it does not occur in the wild. Potatoes, thanks to the Spaniards, ended up in Europe, then spread throughout the continent.

In Europe, it was not immediately adopted. Russian Senate in the middle of the 18th century. issued a decree on potato growing. The forceful introduction of culture was used. Tuber crops became widespread in Russia only by the middle of the 19th century.

Cucumber

A rare plant whose fruits are used as food unripe. The homeland of the cucumber is considered to be Southeast Asia, it is more than 6,000 years old. To this day, in India, it can be found in the wild.

Nobody knows exactly when the cucumber ended up in Russia. There is an assumption that they knew about it in the 9th century, and its spread occurred in the 16-17th centuries.

Turnip

The homeland of this vegetable is the Mediterranean. The ancient Greeks ate it, treated themselves with it, and fed their livestock. The ancient Romans considered baked turnips to be a delicacy.

In Russia, before the appearance of potatoes, turnip was widely used. First, second and dessert dishes were prepared from it. Many customs and beliefs are associated with it. Turnip often appears in folklore: the tales "Turnip", "Tops and roots".

As for fruits, the leading positions for many centuries have been occupied by:

  • apples and pears
  • cherries and cherries
  • plums and apricots

We get acquainted with exotic vegetables, their names and photos

Many residents of our country are no longer surprised at the sight of bananas, pineapples, coconuts, kiwi, avocado or mango. Not everyone knows what the fruit looks, smells, and tastes, which are supplied in small quantities. We offer you to get acquainted with exotic vegetables and fruits, their names and photos.

Check out our list of amazing vegetables and fruits.

Carambola - star fruit

If the fruit is cut across, you get a five-pointed star on the cut. There are varieties with sour and sweet-tasting fruits.

Sweet ones are eaten as a dessert - raw, they resemble grapes, mango and lemon at the same time. And sour ones are used for making salads.

Forbidden rice

A variety of black grain rice that grows in China. Initially black grains, when cooked, acquire a dark purple color. They have a nutty flavor and contain many trace elements. This name was given to rice due to the fact that only representatives of the imperial family could use it.

Watermelon radish

Looking at a root crop in a section - white on the outside, and red - on the inside, it turns out as if it had been turned inside out. The root crop is quite impressive in size, like a baseball. Belongs to the cruciferous family. When cut, it resembles watermelon wedges, especially when sprinkled with sesame seeds.

Coral cabbage - Romanescu

The closest relative of this amazing vegetable is cauliflower. The view is simply mesmerizing. Everyone will like it!

Purple carrot

What many do not know is that initially carrots were purple in color, which is due to the content of a dye - anthocyanin, which has a purple color, which is an antioxidant.

Images of purple carrots have been found on frescoes adorning an ancient temple in Egypt, dating back to 2,000 BC. Such a plant was cultivated in Afghanistan, Pakistan, northern Iran in the 10th century. Carrots with raspberry, white and yellow colors were imported to the European continent in the 14th century. Varieties with green, red and black colors were also grown.

Scientists from Holland have studied the properties of purple carrots. They came to the conclusion that this type of vegetable helps during the protection of the body from the development of oncology and diseases of the cardiovascular system.

Pineberry strawberry

The literal translation of the name sounds like a pineapple berry. The homeland of this amazing fruit is South America. The berries have been discovered by farmers. Now they are grown in greenhouses. Thus, the endangered variety was revived.

When the berries are not ripe, they are green, and when ripe, the skin turns white, and the seeds on them turn red.

Purple potatoes

This type of potato has not only a purple skin, but also a pulp. All dishes from it retain their purple color, and the taste is the same as usual, but there are many anthocyanins in the composition, which make eggplants, blueberries, blackberries purple.

How new types of vegetables appear

Thanks to the work of breeders, their hard and painstaking work, new varieties of plants and hybrids appear on Earth.

Through interspecies crossing, new amazing types of fruits and vegetables appear, such as:

  • yellow watermelon - obtained by crossing a common and wild watermelon with yellow flesh;
  • pluot - the result of crossing a plum with an apricot;
  • yoshta - a hybrid obtained by crossing currants with gooseberries;
  • broccolini - the result of crossing broccoli with gailann, which led to the appearance of asparagus with a head of broccoli on top;
  • neshi is a hybrid of apple and pear. It has been cultivated in Asia for several centuries. Other names are Japanese, water, sand or Asian pear;
  • tomato - a hybrid of tomatoes with potatoes - there are potato tubers in the ground, and bunches of tomatoes above.

Natural ways of the appearance of new species take a long time, but thanks to selection, new varieties and types of fruits and vegetables appear every year, attracting with their appearance, original taste, and unusual color.

You can get even more useful information about vegetable crops by watching an interesting video:


Watch the video: Yummy healthy vegetable names in Dzongkha and English (December 2021).