Most often, hippeastrum is found in the Amazon basin; it is these warm, humid areas that are considered the birthplace of the plant.
The attractiveness of Hippeastrum and its unusual flowering have long made it a favorite of flower growers; this amazing plant is often used to decorate the interior.
If you decide to acquire such a flower, you should find out in advance what kind of hippeastrum flower is, how to care for it correctly, how to propagate it. With this plant, not everything is so simple, in order to admire the amazing flowering, you will need to follow many rules of care.
- Hippeastrum, description, what are the differences from amaryllis
- How to care for hippeastrum
- Reproduction and transplantation
- Why hippeastrum does not bloom, for what reasons
- Post-flowering and dormant care
- Diseases and pests
Hippeastrum: description of the plant, what are the differences from amaryllis
Hippeastrum is an exotic and ornamental plant.
75 species of this family have been bred. The characteristic is as follows:
- The flowers are large, funnel-shaped, slightly pointed or rounded at the end. If the plant is healthy, then the organs reach a diameter of up to 20 centimeters (they look a bit like stars). The petals are wide.
- Pleases a variety of shades. Flowers are cherry, pink, yellow, white and red, with a simple or terry coating. In this culture, there are two-color species.
- The foliage is long, exotic.
The main difference between the plant and other species of the same family is the development of leaves simultaneously with flowering. In other species, the growing season begins after flowering ends.
Some confuse hippeastrum with amaryllis. They are actually very similar in appearance, and have the same principle of agricultural technology.
However, they have a lot of differences, here are some of them.
|Flowers||They grow in the hippeastrum heap, in large inflorescences, they have emptiness and friability inside, and in the amaryllis, the flowers are rough and very dense, from six to twelve pieces bloom on one stem|
|Flower size||In the first species, the size of the flowers is from fifteen to twenty centimeters, in the second species - no more than eight centimeters|
|Flowering season||Hippeastrum blooms in winter and spring, amaryllis only in autumn|
|Scent||The first culture has no smell at all, amaryllis smells delicate and delicate.|
Bulbs. Hippeastrum has a round bulb covered with white scales. The bulb of the second culture is pear-shaped, scales are gray
|Leaflets||Amaryllis leaves are much narrower and shorter.|
In order not to make a mistake when buying a plant, it is worth consulting with a specialist or seller.
How to care for Hippeastrum
Care includes the following steps.
Initially, you should choose the right pot for planting the bulb. You should not use an old pot, be sure to buy a new one, at least nine centimeters high. A small drainage layer is laid on the bottom, which includes: river sand, turf soil and peat (all components are taken in equal proportions).
The flower does not require strong lighting. If you put it in the sun, the leaves and stem will get burned. It is best for the tulle to protect the plant from the sun's rays.
Watering is moderate. It is important that the water does not touch the bulb, so it is better for the soil to dry out a little than to be overly moist. During rest, the flower does not water at all.
Top dressing. Fertilizers are especially important to use during the growing season. Top dressing is carried out every 7 days for three months. In this case, organic substances alternate with minerals. It is impossible to independently increase the concentration of fertilizer, this will damage the root system. Stop fertilizing the hippeastrum 14 days before the start of the dormant period.
The leaves should be regularly cleaned of dust. To do this, the plant is washed under the shower with warm water, and then the leaves are wiped with a soft sponge.
Rest period. It starts in September and lasts until the end of January (the minimum rest period is ten weeks). The temperature regime should not exceed fourteen degrees, but not lower than twelve. Air humidity is minimal. Watering is canceled.
This crop does not need pruning.
With proper care, hippeastrum will delight its owner every year with beautiful flowers of various palettes.
We watch a video about the features of caring for hippeastrum:
Plant propagation and transplanting
The need for a transplant arises only for 3-4 years, before leaving the dormant state.
The soil must have a special composition:
- leafy soil;
- coarse sand or perlite;
- drainage layer.
In order to minimize injury to the flower, the transplant is performed by the transshipment method. By tapping gently on the edges of the old pot, the plant will fall out along with a clod of earth and roots. Diseased roots are removed.
The plant is installed together with a lump of old earth in a new pot with soil and top dressing. After a few hours, the soil is watered.
Reproduction is carried out in three ways:
- dividing the onion.
Seeds. This option is used only by breeders. It is best for beginners not to use this breeding method.
For maximum germination, freshly harvested seeds are used. It is important to clearly calculate the timing of planting seeds, it is recommended to plant in the spring months, in deciduous and sandy soil. The sprouts will sprout on the twentieth day. A grown flower from seeds produces buds only for 4-5 years.
Reproduction by children. It is simple and does not require any special skills. With proper care of the hippeatrum, up to 3 children are released in the third year of its bulbs.
To perform their transplant, you will need:
- small “babies” are separated from the main bulb by gentle movements;
- the bulb at the point of separation should be treated with ash, activated or charcoal for disinfection;
- the soil is prepared with fertilizers;
- children are half immersed in the ground;
- periodically the soil is watered so that it is constantly wet for several months, until the sprout sprouts the first petals. This indicates that the roots have deepened and strengthened;
- ready-made shoots are transplanted into separate pots.
Dividing the bulb. Reproduction in this way is considered risky, since the bulb is damaged during division, and infection can occur.
But if you carry out this procedure, it is important to act according to the following scheme:
- a healthy, adult onion is selected for division;
- the onion is cut into two equal parts, while maintaining the root part and scales (if the head is large, then it can be divided into 16 slices, about 2 centimeters wide);
- the cut is sprinkled with coal;
- the halves are planted in a substrate with peat;
- after 2 months, the sprouts are transplanted into pots.
Before starting reproduction and transplanting a flower, you should familiarize yourself with the principle of work and strictly adhere to the instructions.
Why Hippeastrum does not bloom, possible causes
If an exotic plant stops producing buds and blooms, this may be due to several reasons:
- Immaturity of the hippeastrum. If the head (bulb) is not more than 6 centimeters, such a plant is considered young. To accelerate growth, it is important to regularly feed with nitrogen and potassium. Peduncles are formed on the stem four years after planting the flower.
- Lack of strength after the last flowering. Inflorescences take a lot of energy from the plant, and it is often important to take special care and increase the diet to restore the root system. In addition to nitrogen, phosphorus is added to the soil. You can put the pot in the sun for a while and skip the rest period.
- Bad soil. Hippeastrum need to be transplanted annually, as the soil loses beneficial trace elements necessary for the growth and health of the plant.
- Lack of light. Although the flower does not like direct sunlight, you should not completely shield it from light. Darkness and dullness in a room can result in a lack of bloom.
- Wrong pot selection. In a large pot, the root grows actively, a lot of foliage grows on the stems, and all the energy is spent on their growth. It is necessary that the distance between the head of the hippeastrum and the inner edge of the pot is no more than three centimeters.
- Planting the bulb too deep.
- Violation of the rest period.
Having accurately established the reason for the lack of flowering, you need to immediately eliminate the problem, wait until the recovery period has passed and in a year or two the plant will bloom again.
Secrets of flowering hippeastrum - on video:
Features of care after flowering and during dormancy
After flowering, hippeastrum needs special care in order to regain strength. The leaves continue to grow actively, the bulb must be fed, and in order for this process to take place without deviations, it is worth creating favorable conditions for the plant.
It is contraindicated to cut the arrow of the flower at the very root. This will damage the head, causing the root to rot and the flower to die.
Pruning is done like this:
- first, you should get rid of wilted flowers so that the plant does not continue to feed them;
- cut the arrow so that its height is ten to fifteen centimeters;
- the remaining stump should dry out, then it is carefully removed from the pot with rotating movements;
- pour three centimeters of soil from the pot in order to pour fresh, fed soil (it is important that it is identical in composition to the previous soil).
Hippeastrum needs rest, for this they observe a rest regime.
At the end of flowering, the bulb should rest. The dormant period begins in mid-September. From the last days of July, you should stop fertilizing the soil. From the tenths of September, watering stops. As soon as the leaves dry, the plant is left in a dark room, at a temperature of ten to fourteen degrees until January.
In February, the flower is awakened, it is transferred to a lighted and warm place. Watering and feeding are restored. After a few months, the plant will bloom again.
Diseases and pests
This crop often suffers from pest attacks and is susceptible to many plant diseases. The plant is sick first of all with a strong flood of water, sudden changes in temperature and excessive feeding (especially you should be careful with nitrogen fertilizers).
The most common disease is gray mold. Cracks and spots form on the peduncle. For treatment, it is necessary to treat the plant with fungicides.
Red burn or stragonosporosis. Determination of the disease allows the presence of red specks or streaks on the bulb and leaves of the hippeastrum. The disease is dangerous and requires quick intervention, otherwise the flower will die.
It is necessary to get rid of the affected areas, cut off the infected roots and leaves. Treat other parts with substances containing copper, do not rinse off the product. You can use Fitosorin or Fundazol.
When working with the plant, you need to wear rubber gloves so that the substances do not get on the skin. The procedure lasts from seven to thirty minutes, depending on the extent of the lesion.
Thrips and aphids. The characteristic features are yellowing of the leaves and the pallor of the flower itself. To get rid of these insects, insecticides are used: Artelik, Vertimek and Fitovern.
Spider mite. The lesion can be noticed by yellowing or reddening of the foliage. You can kill the pest only with acaricides.
Narcissus fly larva. The insect cuts holes in the bulb, as a result, it rots and dies. The head of the flower should be doused with hot water, the base of the stem and scales are treated with a carbophos solution.
So, for lovers of indoor plants, hippeastrum is ideal. In order for the flower to please with annual flowering, proper care should be provided: transplant every year, fertilize and water the soil in a timely manner, remove the flower in a cool room for a dormant period, and rid of pests.