Bell peppers are a popular vegetable, and many are trying to grow it in their garden. In order to get a high yield of peppers, you need to know the main aspects of caring for it, destroy pests in time and recognize diseases of bell peppers in order to take the necessary measures to rescue.
- Planting and leaving
The main problem with pepper is wilting in the open field. In second and third place are diseases that cause spotting and various leaf deformations, due to which the fruits on such plants are shriveled and small, as well as pests of peppers.
The main diseases of bell pepper
- Verticillosis (wilting). It occurs due to a fungus that lives in the soil and which penetrates into the plant through the wounds in the roots obtained by the plant during planting or during soil cultivation. There are three main forms of this disease:
- brown, manifested in early July, and the peak of the disease occurs at the end of July and August. The plant lags behind in growth minimally, however, its leaves become brown, and due to damage to deciduous vessels and the evaporating surface, the plant dies, even with good watering;
- dwarf, usually appears about a month after planting. The affected plant lags behind in growth, the ovaries crumble, the leaves on some shoots wilt and crumble. The plant can live until the end of the growing season with good watering;
- green, often present simultaneously with the brown form. A well-developed plant loses its leaves, and after five days it dries up.
The main way of struggle is the destruction of all plant residues at the very end of the season so that the fungus does not survive in the soil, and you also need to give preference to those varieties of pepper that are resistant to this disease.
- Phytoplasmosis. A harmful and widespread disease. It manifests itself through root rot, dwarfism and yellowing of pepper. The leaves become hard, shrink and curl. The fruits are small, completely tasteless, thin-walled. More often the plant dries up. The main damage to pepper occurs at the end of May, due to an increase in the number of vectors of the disease - leafhoppers.
The main way of struggle is chemical irrigation, both at the time of planting and three weeks after planting.
The main pests of bell pepper
- Aphid. The most common type of pepper pest. When it appears, you need to treat the plant with insecticides.
- Spider mite. Control measures - spray the plants with a solution of garlic, dandelion, onion and liquid soap.
- The slugs are naked. The beds must be kept clean, destroyed by slugs, pollinated with lime, tobacco dust, lime. In the aisle, you can plant parsley, as well as pour coffee slurry and booze there. You can sprinkle with mustard.
- One of the most active enemies of bell pepper is the Colorado potato beetle. In addition to manually catching the beetle, shaking it off the bushes into a bucket of water, spraying with celandine tincture is very helpful. He is also scared off by the smell of bush beans.
Planting and leaving
Peppers need to be regularly watered with warm water, fertilized about five times during the summer, the plant should be properly formed, and the soil should be gently shallowly loosened.
For open ground, seeds are planted a month earlier than tomatoes. Sow in the first half of February, as the seedlings grow very slowly at first. The substrate for pepper is the same as for other vegetable crops. When sowing, it should be taken into account that the germination rate of sweet peppers is quite low, only about 50%. Therefore, they need to be sown more (about 3 times) than your family needs to grow.
Seedlings are transplanted into separate pots in the first half of April. Before this, the seedlings are well shed so that as much soil as possible sticks to the roots. Peppers are much more tender than tomatoes, they need a more careful transplant. Unlike tomatoes, plants are not deepened during transplantation, the root collar is left at the same level.
Towards the end of May, the seedlings become firm, ready for transplanting after hardening. Peppers can be planted often, according to the 30x30 scheme, since they do not like overheating of the soil. If you take into account the predecessor, then peppers are good after cucumbers. It is good to add humus to the garden bed - about 15 kg per 1 sq. M.
Among the sweet varieties that are resistant to diseases, we can name the Gift of Moldova and the Gold Medal. They are very productive, you can get up to 15 kg of peppers per 1 square meter. But in the conditions of the Moscow region, not all of them have time to mature on the vine.
Peppers are easily pollinated, and if spicy varieties grow nearby, then next year all the seedlings will be spicy, and after a year one can be sweet for four bushes. Therefore, take this feature into account when planting, update your seed fund.
I think it doesn’t matter that this wonderful vegetable does not always grow to its biological ripeness; green pepper fruits in their technical ripeness are perfect for many dishes. By improving farming techniques and selecting disease-resistant varieties, we can grow sweet, fragrant bell peppers for the whole family.